Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Quran and Hadith Research Center Opened

Ayatullah Muhammad Muhammadi Rayshahri attended the opening ceremony of the Quran and Hadith Research Centers. The ceremony was held in Allameh Majlisi Auditorium in Dar al-Hadith Institute. He while speaking at the opening ceremony said, “Establishment of The Quran and Hadith Research Centers is an important step that will take us closer to the goals set by Dar al-Hadith Institute. I hope that this institute will be a source of manifold blessing for the Islamic Seminary and the entire Muslim world.”

The head of the Dar al-Hadith Institute thanked the Ministry of Education for their efforts and cooperation in granting approval to this newly established research center.

While pointing to the fact that we were in the last days of the holy month of Ramadan, he said, “Those people who are careful of their actions, think in these days as to how much they benefited from this divine banquet. One sign which shows that the fasting in this month was accepted and a person benefited from this month is that such a person experiences spiritual change and enlightenment.”

Ayatullah Rayshahri added, “If a fasting person during these last days feels that he has become closer to God, his attachment to worldly possessions has decreased and his longing for the hereafter has become more intense, then such a person has benefited from this divine banquet. Otherwise such a person should try more to benefit from these last remaining days.”

The head of the Shah Abdul Azim Shrine said, “One of the blessings of the holy month of Ramadan is enlightenment of the heart and such a pure and enlightened heart is a necessity for those doing research in the field of the Quran and Hadith.”

He said, “A researcher in the field of Quran and Hadith is different from a researcher in another subject. Quran and Hadith are sources of spiritual enlightenment. So a researcher in order to benefit from these two sources of light and in order to provide others with guidance from these two sources must himself possess spiritual light within himself.”

This ceremony was held in the presence of Ayatullah Rayshahri, Mahdi Nejad Noori the head of the Technology and Research Department of Ministry of Education and official from the Quran and Hadith University and from different research institutes affiliated to Quran and Hadith Research Centre. The ceremony concluded with unveiling of the foundation stone of the Quran and Hadith Research Centers and the institute officially began its functioning.

Ayatullah Safi Gulpaygani: the Quran and Hadith are two Firm Pillars of Islam

Ayatullah Safi Gulpaygani, the Great Marja’, in a message to the opening ceremony of the Quran and Hadith Research Institute said, “After my Salam and greetings to all the respected Seminary teachers, scholars and other dignitaries present in this important and great function, I congratulate the founder of the Dar al-Hadith Institute on the occasion of the opening of an important and holy Institute dedicated to researching and understanding the sublime realities present in the Holy Quran and the Hadith from the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) which has been named the Quran and Hadith Research Centers. This research institute which has the honor of putting into practice the advice of the Prophet of Islam regarding the two heavy things namely the Quran and the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) should feel proud and should thank the Almighty for granting them this opportunity.”

He further added, “Divine religion of Islam since its beginning and since start of its invitation to the people, till today and till the time of reappearance of the twelfth Imam (a) and till the day of Judgment, is standing on two unshakable pillars. These two pillars have not been affected by passage of time and have stayed fresh like the first day and they will continue to stay like the stars in the sky.

First of these two pillars is the Holy Quran which is the divine revelation from God, the eternal book and the everlasting miracle. It is a proof of the truth of all divine religions and the finality of the religion of Islam. The second pillar is the Sunnah and the Hadith and the knowledge which emanates from the Holy Prophet (s) and his progeny, which is the companion of the Quran.”

Ayatullah Safi Gulpaygani in the later part of his message said, “These two pillars form the soul and identity of Islam. They are foundation of Islam’s divine invitation and also the source of all the realities and explanation of all that we can possibly know from the realm of unseen. These two sources have been available for understanding and learning for human beings and even the angels. Everything in Quran and Hadith is truth and reality and every reality is present in the Quran and Hadith. All the intellectual energy, research potential and academic scrutiny should be used to understand these two great sources of reality.

The Quran and Hadith, the Quran and its commentary by Ahl al-Bayt (a), knowledge emanating from the Hadith, Nahj al-Balagah, Sahifah al-Sajjadiyyah, the four books of Shia Hadith, the treasure of prayers and Duas, the encyclopedia of Bihar al-Anwar, the book Makarim al-Akhlaq and tens and hundreds of other books, all these are priceless treasures which are more valuable than the heavens and the earth because of the divine message they contain. All these are within the reach of human beings. But unfortunately most of the human beings except very few, do not appreciate the value of this great resource and bounty from God.”

He further added and said, “This world can progress and move towards its perfection and development by benefiting from these sources, from these Hadith, from these words of wisdom and admonition and from many lessons which are present in them. Yes, if we say that a guide clearer towards the unseen realm than the Quran and Hadith does not exist, it would not be an exaggeration. Also springing of this divine knowledge from the house of the Prophet (s) is a great sign and a clear and sufficient proof of existence of an Almighty God.

Unfortunately we are living in a period in which many of the people who are known as researchers and thinkers, have remained neglectful of this vast ocean of knowledge and gnosis and have not valued this bounty as it must be valued. Not only this, but we have fixed our eyes on other ideologies and sources which do not bring to us anything other than darkness, failure and confusion. They are nothing but a mirage and do not guide us to real source of water. In reality the right of this knowledge has not been recognized and fulfilled.

Opening of this institute named the Quran and Hadith Reseach Centers is important from this respect that it is start of an important movement – with God’s grace – for knowing and understanding the knowledge of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). Today the Islamic Seminary and other religious and culture institutes carry a heavy responsibility and everyone should strive with a swift and revolutionary cultural movement and action to quench the thirst of spirituality from the spring of the Quran and Hadith. They, by making use of the new technological tools, should conquer highest peaks of knowledge and should strive to hoist the flag of Islam in every corner of the world.”

He concluded his message by saying, “I pray and request to the Almighty God that he with his kindness and mercy accepts the efforts and services of all servants of Quran and Hadith and also makes these efforts acceptable in the eyes of the master of our time Imam Mahdi (a.s). I also ask that God grants all of you the opportunity to move forward with the goals that you have set.”

Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) Journal No. 65 Released

1) Essay on Hadith Terminology: Hadith-e Qawi (Strong Hadith)
Detailed analysis of meanings of terms and finding examples is of the issues that are of importance in the field of hadith studies. Since one word in different eras and schools has different meanings, finding the exact meaning of the term and its history can be of great help to researchers. The authors of this paper try to examine the term "qawi (strong)" in `Ilm al-Hadith (Hadith Science) through the above mentioned approach. There are approximately 16 meanings for this technical term in fiqhi (jurisprudential) and hadith books. They first give and account of the term: its origin and development, its early application to school of Hillah and then to the school of Jabal Amil. They finally view the concept from different perspectives. Results of the present research study indicate that praising subsequent to discrediting, the Imami narrator as a condemned one, or praising subsequent to accrediting the non-Imami narrator play an important role in defining hadith-e qawi (strong hadith). This research also shows that those who coined this term have not taken into consideration the relationship between literal and idiomatic meanings of the term so it is not wrong to say that they have somehow misled the seekers of hadith.
Key Words:`Ilm al-Hadith (Hadith Science), Hadith-e Qawi (Strong Hadith), Mamduh (Praised), Ghayr Mamduh (Not Praised), Ghayr Madhmum (Not Condemned), Sheikh Bahai.
* * * * *

Samaneh Motlaq Majd
Abbas Pasandideh
Shadi Nafisi
2) Typology of the Affective Cognition in Ethics
The purpose of this study is to clarify the kind of cognition which has been used in the traditions of the Infallible Imams to correct vices and fortify the moral virtues. To do so, the authors of the present paper have studied the traditions of moral virtues and vices, identified their cognitive method and classified them, using the descriptive - analytical method, based on archival and library resources. The findings of this study indicate that six groups of cognition have been used in correction and control of behavior: human cognition and knowledge of himself, of the world, of death, of the hereafter, of God and of the consequences. Each of these six topics consists of different dimensions and in respect to their qualities; they will correct or fortify one moral virtue or more. The results of this study: a) Islamic cognitive model in ethics, is a six-sided model, b) one or more of the above mentioned groups can be used for making a change in human behavior.
Key Words: Types of Cognition and Knowledge, Knowledge of Himself, Knowledge of the World, Knowledge of Death, Knowledge of the Hereafter, Knowledge of God and Knowledge of the Consequences.
* * * * *

Asghar Hadavi Kashani
Marzieh Razavi
3) Verisimilitude of Traditions of Rijat Based on Bihar al-Anwar
Traditions of Rijat, derived from the book "Bihar al-Anwar", have been divided into several groups by their implications. Of 160 hadiths narrated by the late Majlisi, more than 50 hadiths have been selected by eliminating repetitive themes. Since most of them have been transmitted from the book "Mukhtasar Basair al-Darajat", written in the ninth century AH a few centuries before the book "Bihar al-Anwar", their documents have been reviewed in this paper. Survey results indicate that some of these hadiths can be found in reliable hadith books such as "al-Kafi" and "Man la Yahzaruh al-Faqih" along with their firm documents. The abundance of other hadiths shows that principle of rijat can be proved through their frequency, though we cannot speak firmly of the details of rijat. The authors of the present paper mention the names of the narrators of rijat hadiths in a table at the end of this paper based on "Mukhtasar Basair al-Darajat". Their character and intensity destroys the possibility of their collusion to transmit forged hadiths.
Key Words: Rijat, Hadith Evaluation, "Mukhtasar Basair al-Darajat".
* * * * *

Sayyed Alireza Hosseini
Alireza Bahrami
4) Baghdad Hadith School’s View of Qom’s Narrators and Their Rijali Comments
The different approaches of two schools of Baghdad and Qom to hadith, hadith teachings, and their criteria for the validity of hadith have resulted in a picture quite different from that of these two schools. This is due to the Baghdad’s approach to Qom arisen from the defense of narrators and honoring their elders and content of their heritage. Although the school of Baghdad has made some criticisms of the method of heritage studies and rijali opinions of Qom, big descriptions of great Shi`a listographers of the teachers of Qom, their writings, and their reliance on ways of transmission of hadith legacy from Qom reveal Baghdad’s specific respect for this great school.
Key Words: Qom Hadith School, Baghdad Hadith School, Qom’s Narrators, Rijali Comments.
* * * * *

Somayeh Hadyehloo
Fatholah Najarzadegan
5) Evaluation of Common Themes of "Ahl al-Dhikr" and the Context of Verses (Nahl: 43, Anbiya’: 7) in the Eyes of the Exegetes of the Quran
The Holy Qur'an has accepted, at least in the field of religious teachings, the authority of "Ahl al-Dhikr" as cited in its two verses: Nahl: 43 and Anbiya’: 7. There are two major theories in the terminology of "Ahl al-Dhikr" among the scholars of the Quran. Some, citing the context of the verses, people of the Book and people of Knowledge and emphasized the theory of pagans as their examples. Some others relying on many Shi`a traditions and a few Sunni traditions in this regard have considered them as "Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet’s Household, may peace and blessings be upon them)". They have restricted it to this sense following the theme of these traditions. Meanwhile, some commentators have tried to bring together these two theories and present them in one. This research study aims at finding and evaluating the common themes of these two theories and presenting them in two levels of tanzil and ta’wil.
Key Words:Ahl al-Dhikr (People of Remembrance), Ahl al-Bayt (PBUH), the Quran, the People of Book, the Prophets’ Moral Traits.
* * * * *

Mahdi Bayat Mokhtari
6) Different Rijali Views of Ayatollah Khomeini and Ayatollah Khoei on Kulayni’s Teacher (Muhammad ibn Ismail)
Kulayni has directly narrated 831 hadiths from Muhammad ibn Isma'il without adding any suffix or prefix to it. Most researchers in the field of Hadith and some rijal scholars have identified him to be Muhammad ibn Isma'il Bunduqi Neishabouri. Opinions of two contemporary jurists Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khoi on his trustworthiness and reliability differ a lot. Though he has not been accredited by rijal scholars such as Tusi and Najashi, Imam Khomeini, at least in four cases, has accredited him. However, considering the existing evidences, we face with his supreme status. The abundance of hadiths narrated from him by Kulayni, on the one hand, and their content certainty on the other hand are more important than the rijal scholars’ tawthiq (accreditation). Moreover, a lot of his traditions have been transmitted in other ways that are accurate or reliable or valid without any addition or omission. Ayatollah Khoei, on the contrary, does not regard the abundance of hadiths narrated from him by Kulayni as a guarantee of his tawthiq (accreditation). He stipulates that there is no obvious indication that Kulayni has given his fatwa or religious obligations concerning lawful and unlawful things according to Muhammad ibn Isma'il’s traditions. Finally, with the assumption of such a fatwa, it does not imply tawthiq. Exploring evidences like the character of Kulayni as a narrator from Muhammad ibn Isma'il, licensed by him to narrate hadiths and accredited by famous scholars like Allameh Helli, the First Martyr, the author of Ma`alim, Vahid Behbahani, Mir Damad, Hurr Amili, etc. result in consistency of Imam Khomeini's approach. Of course, it is not reasonable to be satisfied with tawthiq and tadif (accrediting and discrediting) as the only agent and ignore other indications.
Key Words: Muhammad ibn Isma'il Neishabouri, Kulayni, Imam Khomeini, Ayatollah Khoei, Tawthiq and Tadif (Accrediting and Discrediting).
* * * * *

Sayyed Hassan Islami
7) Rationality of Faith
There is an argument for rationality of belief in God and the Day of Judgment in some Islamic traditions which says: Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. If God does not actually exist, such a person will have only a finite loss. This kind of argument did not appeal to Muslim theologians. However, there is an instantiation of this argument in Christianity which is known as Pascal's wager. According to some studies this argument has been transmitted from the writings of al-Ghazali to Christian culture. After reporting and analyzing the relevant hadiths, the present paper makes an analysis of the Christian version and reconsiders the drawbacks of this argument as well as its strength. The major drawbacks attributed to this argument are because of ignorance of its nature and function. Consequently, it seems that this argument has its effectiveness.
Key Words: Rationality of Faith in Shi`a Traditions, Pascal's Wager, Rationality Faith, Pragmatic Reasoning, al-Ghazali.

إصدار العدد 65 من مجلة علوم الحديث المحكّمة

خلاصة الأبحاث

1) معقولية الإيمان
السيد حسن الإسلامي
ورد الاستدلال في بعض الروايات لمعقولية الاعتقاد بالله واليوم الآخر بما مضمونه كالتالي: إذا كان الله واليوم الآخر موجوداً فقد أفلحنا، وإن كان اعتقادنا بهما باطلاً فلم نخسر شيئاً. إلا أن هذا النوع من الاستدلال لم يحظ باهتمام المتكلمين المسلمين، في حين أن هذا الاستدلال له قرينة في الثقافة المسيحية تعرف باشتراط باسکال، وطبقاً لما أفاده البحث العلمي لبعض الباحثين فإن هذا النوع قد دخل الی الثقافة المسيحية من خلال كتب الغزالي.
المقال الحاضر بعد استعراضه للروايات المذكورة وتحليلها وبعد تحليل ما ذكره المسيحيون في هذا المجال، أبان الاشكالات الموجهة لهذا الاستدلال وقيّمها، وأوضح أن أهم الاشكالات المذكورة إنما أثيرت بسبب إغفال خصال الاستدلال المذكور ومواطن استخدامه، وبالتالي فالذي يبدو في النظر أن هذا لاستدلال لا زال قويماً.
الألفاظ المحورية: معقولية الإيمان في أحاديث الشيعة، اشتراط باسکال، الاستدلال العملي، الغزالي.

2) دراسة وتقييم وجوه الجمع بين روايات «اهل الذكر»و سياق الآيتين 43/ النحل، و 7 / الأنبياء من منظار المفسرين
فتح الله نجارزادگان
سميه هاديلو
آمن القرآن الكريم _ خلال الآيتين 43 من سورة النحل و 7 من سورة الأنبياء _ بمرجعية «اهل الذكر» في ميدان المعارف الدينية علی الأقل. وفي تحديد المراد من عنوان «أهل الذكر» توجد نظريتان بين الباحثين في المجالات القرآنية، فاعتمد فريق منهم سياق الآيات في تحديد المعنی وقال إن المراد به هو أهل الكتاب، وأهل العلم و.... وأكدوا علی نظرية ارجاع المشركين اليهم. بينما اعتمد فريق آخر الروايات الكثيرة الوارد في هذا المجال من طرق الفريقين وقال إن المراد به هو أهل البيت عليهم السلام خاصة. فحاول بعض المفسرين إبداء وجه جمع بين القولين المذكورين. المقال الحاضر يحاول تسليط الأضواء علی وجوه الجمع المذكورة وتقييمها علی صعيدي التفسير والتأويل.
الألفاظ المحورية: اهل الذكر، اهل البيت عليهم السلام، القرآن، اهل الكتاب، اوصاف الأنبياء.

3) اظهار سلامة روايات الرجعة وفقاً لنقل بحار لانوار
اصغر هادوي الکاشاني
مرضية الرضوي
جمعنا في هذا المقال روايات الرجعة من كتاب بحار الانوار، و هي تنقسم بلحاظ الدلالة الی عدة مجاميع. وقد انتقينا اكثر 50 رواية من مجموع 160 رواية رواها المجلسي رحمه الله عليه بعد حذف المتون المتشابهة دلالة. وبما أن أكثرها منقول عن كتاب « مختصر بصائر الدّرجات »، الذي هو من مؤلفات القرن التاسع وبينه وبين كتاب بصائر الدرجات فاصل زمني كبير فقد قمنا بتقييم أسانيدها فكانت نتيجة البحث هي وجود عدد منها في كتب معتبرة مثل «الكافي» و «من لا يحضره الفقيه» وبأسانيد معتبرة. ومن خلال كثرة الروايات المذكورة يمكننا إثبات الرجعة بالتواتر المعنوي، وإن لم نتمكن من اثبات جزئياتها بشكل قاطع. وفي الختام ومن خلال الاشارة الی كتاب مختصر بصائر الدرجات أوردنا أسماء رواة هذه الأحاديث، حيث إن كثرتهم وخصوصياتهم تنفي احتمال تواطئهم علی الكذب.
الالفاظ المحورية: الرجعة، دراسة الروايات، مختصر بصائر الدرجات.

4) أنواع المعارف المؤثرة علی الأخلاق
سمانه مطلق مجد
عباس پسنديده
شادي نفيسي
الهدف من هذه الدراسة إيضاح المعارف التي استخدمها قادة الدين في علاج الرذائل وتحكيم الفضائل، ومن خلال دراسة أحاديث الفضائل والرذائل بشكل ميداني تم التعرف علی أساليبها المعرفية ومن ثم تبويبها. هذا الدراسة تظهر وجود ستة معارف تم الانتفاع بها في اصلاح الاخلاق هي: معرفة الانسان، معرفة الدنيا، معرفة الموت، معرفة الآخرة، معرفة الله سبحانه وتعالی، معرفة آثار الأخلاق والأعمال. ولکل منها أبعاد عديدة، وبلحاظ تناسب کل منها مع بعض الصفات الأخلاقية فانه يوجب اصلاح أو تحکيم خصوصية أو خصوصيات اخلاقية. والنتيجة التي انتهی اليها هذا البحث هي: أولاً: أن النموذج المعرفي في نطاق الاخلاق من وجهة نظر الاسلام له ستة أوجه. ثانياً: لاصلاح الاخلاق الانسانية يمكن استخدام هذه الأوجه الست بشكل أحادي أو مزدوج.
الالفاظ المحورية: أنواع المعارف، آثار المعارف، معرفة النفس، معرفة الله، معرفة الدنيا، معرفة الموت، معرفة الآخرة، معرفة التبعات.

5) نظرة مدرسة بغداد الی رواة الحديث والآراء الرجالية في مدرسة قم
علي رضا بهرامي
السيد علي رضا الحسيني
اشتهر وجود اتجاهين مختلفين للتعامل مع الحديث والمعارف المنقولة في مدرستي قم وبغداد، وأن معاييرهما في تقييم الروايات متفاوت، مما أدی الی خلق أجواء مختلفة بالمرة وتصوير التقابل بين هاتين المدرستين، في حين أن نظرة مدرسة بغداد لقم ينبثق من أخذهم عنها ودفاعهم عن رواتها وإجلال مشايخها وتراثها الحديثي.
وعلی الرغم من توجيه بعض النقود لبعض اساليب تحقيق التراث أو لآراء الرجاليين في قم، إلا أن كبار أصحاب الفهارس ذكروا مشايخ قم ومصنفاتهم بأصاف جليلة واعتمدوا علی طرقهم في نقل التراث، مما يكشف عن اهتمام هذه المدرسة بمدرسة قم العظيمة.
الالفاظ المحورية: المدرسة الحديثية في قم، مدرسة بغداد، الرواة القميون، آراء قم الرجالية.

6) تعارض الرأي الرجالي للامام الخميني والسيد الخوئي في خصوص محمدبن اسماعيل استاذ الکليني
مهدي بيات المختاري
روی الكليني رحمه الله عليه عن عنوان «محمد بن اسماعيل» من دون إضافة شيء 831 رواية، ويری أكثر المحققين في مجال الحديث والباحثون في علم الرجال أن المراد به هو «محمد بن اسماعيل البندقي النيشابوري». وقد اختلف الفقيهان المعاصران الامام الخميني والسيد الخوئي رحمه الله عليهما في وثاقته اختلافاً أساسياً، فوثقه الامام الخميني في أربع مواضع علی الأقل، ويؤكد بأنه وإن لم يصرح علماء الرجال _ كالشيخ الطوسي والنجاشي _ بتوثيقه، الا أن القرائن دالة علی علو مقامه؛ فإكثار الكليني النقل عنه من جهة، واتقان مروياته من حيث المضمون من جهة ثانية، واهتمام كبار علماء الشيعة بهذه الروايات من جهة ثالثة، هو أرفع من توثيق الرجاليين له. مضافاً الی أن الكثير من رواياته بل غالبها مروي من طرق أخری هي إما صحيحة أو موثقة أو معتبرة من دون اختلاف بين النصوص.
وأما السيد الخوئي رحمه الله عليه فلا يری كثرة روايات الكليني عن محمد بن اسماعيل دليلاً علی وثاقته، ويصرح بأنه لم يثبت فتوی الكليني وفقاً لرواياته في الأحكام الالزامية، ثم تنزل وقال لو فرضنا فتوی الكليني علی ضوئها في الالزاميات فهو لا يدل علی الوثاقة أيضاً.
الا ان ملاحظة القرائن الكثيرة بما فيها شخصية الكليني رحمه الله عليه الراوي عن محمد بن اسماعيل، وكونه من مشايخ الاجازة، مضافاً لتوثيقه من قبل شخصيات مرموقة _ أمثال العلامة الحلي، والشهيد الأول، وصاحب المعالم، والوحيد البهبهاني، والميرداماد، والحر العاملي، و... _ يشهد برصانة رأي الإمام الخميني. ولا ريب أن الاعتماد علی أقوال الرجاليين باعتباره العامل الرئيسي والوحيد في الثوثيق و التضعيف، وإغفال العوال والقرائن الأخری وف لا يتمخض عن رأي شامل وسديد.
الألفاظ المحورية: محمدبن اسماعيل النيشابوري، الکليني، الامام الخميني، آية الله الخوئي، التوثيق و التضعيف.

7) بحث حول اصطلاح الحديث القوي
علية رضاداد
السيد کاظم الطباطبائي
حسن نقيزاده
تعد دراسة معاني الاصطلاحات من المسائل الهامة في الأبحاث الحديثية؛ وذلك أن بعض الاصطلاحات قد يفيد معاني مختلفة في العصور أو المدارس الحديثية المختلفة، من هنا فإن دراسة معاني الاصطلاحات بشكل دقيق وملاحظة تطورها الدلالي علي مر التأريخ من شأنه أن يفتح الأبواب أمام الباحثين.
لهذا سعينا في هذا المقال أن نسلط الأضواء علی الاصطلاح الحديثي «قوي» من هذا المنظار، هذا الاصطلاح المستعمل في كتب الحديث والفقه ضمن ستة عشر معنی تقريباً. ولهذا فإننا سنذكر أولا نشأة هذا الاصطلاح تاريخياً، وأول المعاني المستعمل فيها في مدرس الحلة، ثم في مدرسة جبل عامل، ثم ننتهي لاستخلاص معناه.
ويمكننا استخلاص النتيجة التالية من الأبحاث المذكورة وهي أن مدح الراوي الذي يتلو ضعفه أو عدم مدحه مع كونه إمامياً، أو مدحه التالي لوثاقته إذا كان غير إمامي، له دخل في تعريف القوي. كما تظهر هذه الدراسة أن الواضعين لهذا لاصطلاح لم يأخذوا تناسب المعنی اللغوي مع المعنی الاصطلاحي بعين الاعتبار بشكل مطلوب، ولهذا لو ادعينا أن عملهم هذا باعث علی اشتباه الباحثين في نطاق الحديث، لم نكن مجازفين.
الألفاظ المحورية: علم الحديث، الحديث القوي، الممدوح، غير الممدوح، غير المذموم، الشيخ البهائي.