Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Ahlul bait in The Quran‏

Quran, 2:207 : "And among men there is one who selleth his self (soul) seeking the pleasure of God; and verily, God is affectionate unto His (faithful) servants." It is held unanimious by the Scholars of the two Islamic schools, that this verse was revaled for Imam Ali, when he readily slept in the bed of the Prophet (s), when the latter to the will of God had to migrate from Mecca to Medina. And it was on this very occasion that the above verse was revealed. References: Tafsir al Kabir, by Fakhr ad Din al Razi, v 2 p 189 ( for the above narrt ) Hakim al Mustadrak, v 3 p 4 Tafseer e Qurtubi, v 3 p 347 Asadul Ghaiba fe Marifatil As Sahaba, v 4 p 25 Tafseer Nishapoori ( Allama Nishapori ) , v 1 p 281 Kifyatul Talib, p 114 Dhakhiar al-Uqba, p 88 Noor ul-Absar, p 86 Ahlul bait in The Quran 1.Ayat al-Tat'hir: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you with a perfect purification". (Quran, 33:33) Narrated Aisha: One day the Prophet (s) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)." Reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (s), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61. One can see that the author of Sahih Muslim confirms that: Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain are the Ahlul-Bayt, The purification sentence in Quran (the last sentence of Verse 33:33) was revealed for the virtue of the above-mentioned individuals. He (Muslim) did not put any other tradition in this section (section of the virtues of Ahlul-Bayt). If the author of Sahih Muslim believed that the wives of the Prophet were included in Ahlul-Bayt, he would have quoted some traditions about them in this section. It is interesting to see that Aisha, the wife of the Prophet (s) is the narrator of the above tradition, and she herself is testifying that Ahlul- Bayt are the above-mentioned individuals (i.e., Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain) Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, pp 351,663 Another version of the "Tradition of Cloak" is written in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, which is narrated in the authority of Umar Ibn Abi Salama, the son of Umm Salama (another wife of Prophet), which is as follows: The verse "Verily Allah intends to ... (33:33)" was revealed to the Prophet (s) in the house of Umm Salama. Upon that, the Prophet gathered Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, and covered them with a cloak, and he also covered Ali who was behind him. Then the Prophet said: "O' Allah! These are the Members of my House (Ahlul-Bayt). Keep them away from every impurity and purify them with a perfect purification." Umm Salama (the wife of Prophet) asked: "Am I also included among them O Apostle of Allah?" the Prophet replied: "You remain in your position and you are toward a good ending." al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, pp 323,292,298; v1, pp 330-331; v3, p252; v4, p107 from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p578, Tradition #978 al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416 (two traditions) from Ibn Abi Salama, v3, pp 146-148 (five traditions), pp 158,172 al-Khasa'is, by an-Nisa'i, pp 4,8 al-Sunan, by al-Bayhaqi, narrated from Aisha and Umm Salama Tafsir al-Kabir, by al-Bukhari (the author of Sahih), v1, part 2, p69 Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v2, p700 (Istanbul), from Aisha Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, pp 198,605 from Aisha and Umm Salama Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, pp 5-8 (from Aisha and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri), pp 6,8 (from Ibn Abi Salama) (10 traditions) Tafsir al-Qurtubi, under the commentary of verse 33:33 from Umm Salama Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p485 (Complete version) from Aisha and Umar Ibn Abi Salama Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v2, p12; v4, p79 narrated from Ibn Abi Salama Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, sec. 1, p221 from Umm Salama Tarikh, by al-Khateeb Baghdadi, v10, narrated from Ibn Abi Salama Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, v1, p193 narrated from Aisha Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, pp 332-336 (seven traditions) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibb al-Tabari, pp21-26, from Abu Sa'id Khudri Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p166 (by several transmitters) .... and more .... The fact that the gender in later part of Verse 33:33 is switched from feminine to masculine, has led the majority of Sunni commentators to believe that the last part was revealed for Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain, as Ibn Hajar al-Haythami indicated: Based on the opinion of the majority of commentators, the saying of Allah :"Verily Allah intends to ... (the last sentence of the verse 33:33)" was revealed for Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, because of the usage of masculine gender in the word "Ankum" and after that. Reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p220. (20112007) 2.Ayat al-Wilaya: "Certainly your Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe who eshtablish prayer and give charity while they bow. And who ever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe as a guardian, so surely the party of Allah will be victorious." (Quran 5:55-56) It is unanimous that the verse descended about Imam Ali when he gave away in charity his ring while he was in a state of kneeling in his prayer. Many Sunni commentators of the Quran confirm the fact that the above verse descended on the honor of Imam Ali and many Sunni scholars have also mentioned the unanimity or consensus of opinion in their books. Here are some references: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi, under Verse 5:55 Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v6, pp 186,288-289 Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Quran, by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Qurtubi, v6, p219 Tafsir al-Khazin, v2, p68 Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 293-294 Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, Egypt 1373, v1, pp 505,649 Asbab al-Nuzool, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Egypt 1382, v1, p73 Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, on the authority of Ibn Abbas Sharh al-Tjrid, by Allama Qushji Ahkam al-Quran, al-Jassas, v2, pp 542-543 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p38 Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, p391, Tradition #5991 al-Awsat, by Tabarani, narrated from Ammar Yasir Ibn Mardawayh, on the authority of Ibn Abbas Allama al-Tabarsi, while commenting on this verse in Majma' al-Bayan states: "The plural form has been used for Ali, Commander of the faithful, in order to express his honor and eminence." And masters of the Arabic language use the plural form for an individual to show respect. Allama al-Zamakshari in his Tafsir al-Kashshaf, v1, p649, has mentioned another nice point which is as follows: If you inquire how this plural word is applicable to Ali, may Allah be gracious to him, who is an individual, I shall say that though this verse is about Ali, an individual, the plural form is used in order to presuade others to act similarly and to give alms as readily as Ali did. There is also an implied instruction that the faithful should keep themselves always on the look out for occasions of acts of sympathy, benevolence and charity to the poor and the needy, and readily do the needful without waiting till the completion of even so important a duty as saying a prayer. (20122007) 3.Ayat Ahl Al-Dhikr: "....then, Ask AHL AL-DHIKR if You do not know" Q16:23 and Q21:7 This noble verse instructs the Muslims to refer to the people who know and their knowledge is deeply rooted and they know the interpretation of the Qur'an. This verse was revealed to introduce the ahl al-bayt. They are Muhammad, 'Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn. whom the Prophet of God (S) designated on many occasions and he called them the Imams of guidance, light of those in darkness, "the people who know", "those deeply embedded in knowledge, and those have the knowledge of the book". These narrations are well established, true and repeatedly narrated by the muslims. References: Al-Imam al-Tha'labi in his Tafsir al-Kabir on the meaning of chapter 16 (al-Nahl). Tafsir al-Qur'an of Ibn Kathir in the 2nd volume, p. 570. Tafsir of al-Tabari in volume 14, p. 109. Tafsir al-Alusi called Ruh al-Ma'ani in volume 14, p. 134. Tafsir al-Qurtubi in volume 11, p. 272. Tafsir al-Hakim, called Shawahid al-Tanzil, volume 1, p. 334. Tafsir al-Tustari called Ihqaq al-Haqq, in volume 3, p. 482 Yanabi' al-Mawadda of al-Qunduzi al-Hanafi, p. 51 and p. 140. (03012008) 4.Ayat al-Mawaddah: The Muslims in Madina comprised of the Ansar (original residents of Madina) and the Muhajirin (migrants from Makka). Once, the Ansar argued that they were superior to the Muhajirin. The Holy Prophet (S) heard their words and addressed them with disapproval of their pride. He reminded them that his presence amongst them was a great blessing for them. The Ansár were ashamed at their conduct, and said, "O Prophet of Alláh, if you command us we will give you everything we own (in repayment)." At this time the following Ayat was revealed: "Say (O Muhammad), I do not ask any recompense for it (my work as a messenger), except the love of my near relatives (Ahlul Bayt). And whosoever earns good, We (Alláh) increase for him good therein. Verily, Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Grateful." (Quran, 42:23) When asked who his near relatives were, the Holy Prophet (S) replied that they were `Ali (A), Fatimah (A) and their two sons, Hasan and Husein. Thus the love of the Ahlul Bayt (A) is the way a Muslim shows his gratitude to the Holy Prophet (S) for his teachings. To obey him is to obey Allah as the Holy Qur'an says: "Say (O Muhammad), If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Verily, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Quran, 3:31) It has been widely reported by the Sunni commentators of the Holy Quran that: Ibn Abbas narrated: When the above verse (42:23) was revealed, the companions asked: "O' the Messenger of Allah! Who are those near kin whose love Allah has made obligatory for us?" Upon that the Prophet (s) said: "Ali, Fatimah, and their two sons." He (s) repeated this sentence thrice. References: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Part 27, pp 165-166 Tafsir al-Tha'labi, under the commentary of verse 42:23 of Quran Tafsir al-Tabari, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, under verse 42:23 Tafsir al-Qurtubi, under commentary of verse 42:23 of Quran Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, under commentary of verse 42:23 Tafsir al-Baidhawi, under the commentary of verse 42:23 of Quran Tafsir al-Kalbi, under commentary of verse 42:23 of Quran al-Madarik, in connection with verse 42:23 Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p25 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p259 Shawahid al-Tanzeel, Hakim Hasakani, al-Hanafi, v2, p132 Many others such as Ibn Abi Hatam, al-Tabarani, etc. (08022008) 5. Ayat al-Mubahala: The incident of "Mubahala" (which means imprecation, or invoking the curse of Allah upon the liar), which took place in the 9th year of Hijrah. In that year a delegation consisting of 14 Christian priests came from Najran to meet the Prophet (s). When they met the Prophet they asked him what is his opinion about Jesus (p). The Messenger of Allah (s) said: "You may take rest today and you will receive the reply afterwards." The next day, 3 verses of Quran (3:59-61) about Jesus were revealed. When Christians did not accept the words of Allah, The Prophet recited the last revealed verse: But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and our selves and your selves; then let us be earnest in prayer and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars. (Quran 3:61). In this way, the Prophet (s) challenged the Christians. The next day the Christian priests came out on one side of the field. Also on the other side, the Prophet came out of his house carrying al-Husain in his arm with al-Hasan walking along with him while he was holding his hand. Behind him was Fatimah al-Zahra, and behind her was Imam Ali, peace be upon them all. When the Christians saw the five pure souls, and how determined the Prophet is in his idea that he put the closest people to him at risk, the Christians were terrified and abstained from the proposed malediction (Mubahala) and submitted to a treaty with the Prophet (s). al-Suyuti who was a great scholar, wrote: In the above verse (3:61), according to what Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari (the great companion of the Prophet) said, the word "sons" refers to al-Hasan and al-Husain, the word "women" refers to Fatimah, and the word "our selves" refer to the Prophet and Ali. Thus Ali is referred as "the self" of the Prophet (Nafs of the Prophet). Reference: al-Durr al-Manthoor by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v2, p38 Muslim and al-Tirmidhi both confirm the above incident, and recorded the following tradition in their authentic collections of traditions: Narrated Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas: ...And when the verse 3:61 was revealed, the Prophet called Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain. Then the Prophet said: "O Lord! These are my family members (Ahli)." References: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition #32. Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654 al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p150, who said this tradition is authentic based on the criteria set by two Shaikhs, al-Bukhari and Muslim. Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p25 (24032008)

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