Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Who are Ahlul-Bayt? (Part I)

According to most authentic traditions in collections of both Sunni and Shia, Ahlul-Bayt (People of the House) of the Prophet are one of the two most precious Symbols of Islam after the departure of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). There are numerous traditions in the collection of both schools that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) has reminded us to stick to these two weighty things (al-Thaqalain), namely Quran and Ahlul-Bayt, in order not to go astray after him. The Messenger of Allah also informed us that these two weights are non-separable and are with each other till the day of Judgment. This requires us that for understanding the interpretation of Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) we should refer to those who are attached to it, namely Ahlul-Bayt. Knowing exactly who Ahlul-Bayt are, thus becomes a very vital matter when one considers the above tradition of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) as well as many other traditions which unequivocally state that adherence to Ahlul-Bayt is the only way of salvation. This clearly implies that the one who follows a wrong set of Ahlul-Bayt (!!), will be led astray. Considering the critical importance of the subject, it will not be surprising to see that the Shia differ from some Sunnis in this subject. In fact, the Sunnis do not have one voice in specifying the Members of the House the Prophet. Most Sunnis are in the opinion that the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) are: Fatimah al-Zahra (AS) (the daughter of the Messenger of Allah), Imam Ali (AS), Imam al-Hasan (AS), Imam al-Husain (AS), Wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) Others among the Sunnis further include ALL the descendants of the Prophet to the list! Some other Sunnis are very generous and include all the descendants of Abbas (the Abbasid) as well as the descendants of Aqil & Ja'far (the two brothers of Imam Ali) to the list. It should be noted, however, that there have been some leading Sunni scholars who did NOT consider the wives of the Prophet among Ahlul-Bayt. This happens to be consistent with the Shia point of view. To the Shia, the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) consist of the following individuals ONLY: Fatimah al-Zahra (AS), Imam Ali (AS), Imam al-Hasan (AS), Imam al-Husain (AS), Nine descendants of Imam al-Husain (AS). and including the Prophet (PBUH&HF) himself, they will become fourteen individuals. Of course, at the time of the Holy Prophet only five of them (including the Prophet) were living and the rest were not born yet. The Shia further assert that these fourteen individuals are protected by Allah from any kind of flaws, and thus worthy of being obeyed beside Quran (the other Weighty Symbol), and they are the only people who have the full knowledge of the interpretation of the Quranic verses. In this discussion, we would like to explain why the Shia exclude the wives of the Prophet from Ahlul-Bayt, and also we will briefly discuss why Ahlul-Bayt are protected/infallible. (More detailed discussion on the infallibility is provided in Chapter 2). We base our proofs on: 1. Quran, 2. Traditions from the authentic Sunni Collections, 3. Historical events. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Evidence From Quran -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Holy Book of Allah mentions Ahlul-Bayt and their exceptional virtue in the following verse which is known as "Purification Verse" (Ayah al-Tat'hir): "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you with a perfect purification". (Quran, the last sentence of Verse 33:33) Note that the word "Rijs" in the above verse has got the article "al-" at its beginning which makes the word universal. Thus "al-Rijs" means "EVERY KIND of impurity". Also at the end of the verse, Allah states "and purify you a PERFECT purification." The word "perfect" comes from the emphasis of "Tat'hiran". This is the only place in Quran that Allah uses the emphasis of "PERFECT purification". According to the above verse, Allah expresses his intention to keep Ahlul-Bayt pure and flawless/sinless, and what Allah intends it will certainly take place as Quran itself testifies (see 16:40). Indeed, a human can be sinless because he is not forced to commit sin. It is the human's choice to accept the instructions of Allah and get His help to avoid sin, or to neglect Allah's commandments and commit the sin. Allah is advisor, and encourager, and warner. A sinless human is still a human; no doubt about it. Some people assert that in order to be human, one SHOULD have some mistakes. Such claim is unsupported. The truth is that Human CAN make mistakes but he does not have to. It is the Grace of Allah that attracts His servants towards Him, WITHOUT compelling them any way. This is our choice to pursue this attraction and refrain from doing mistakes, or to turn away and commit the mistakes. However, Allah has GUARANTEED to show the Right Path and to provide a pure life for those who seek it: Whoever works righteousness man or woman and is faithful, We shall revive a PURE life for him. (Quran 16:97) And whosoever keeps his duty to Allah, Allah will appoint a way out for him. (Quran 65:2) It is worth mentioning the sentence of Quran in verse 33:33 which is related to purification of Ahlul-Bayt, has been placed at the middle of verses related to the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and this was the main reason why some Sunnis include the wives of the Prophet in Ahlul-Bayt. However, the sentence related to Ahlul-Bayt (given above) distinguishes itself from the sentences before and after it with a clear distinction. The sentences before and after, use only feminine gender which clearly shows they are addressing the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). However, in contrary, the above sentence uses only masculine gender which is a clear indication that that Quran is changing the individuals who is referring to. People who are familiar with Quran to some extent, know that such a sharp change of addressee is not a weird-thing, and it has been applied to several places in Quran. For instance we read in Quran: "O Joseph! pass this over and (O wife of Aziz!) ask forgiveness for your sin, for truly you have been at fault."(Quran 12:29) In the above verse, "O wife of Aziz" has not been mentioned and the address to Joseph (AS) looks to continue. However the transition of the address from masculine gender to feminine gender clearly shows that the second sentence is addressing the Aziz's wife and not Prophet Joseph (AS). Notice that both sentences are WITHIN one verse. Also note the immediate change of addressing from Aziz's wife to Joseph and again back to the wife in verses before verse 29 and also WITHIN that verse. In Arabic language, when a group of women are being addressed, feminine gender is employed. However, if only one man exists among that group, masculine gender is used instead. Thus the above sentence of Quran clearly shows Allah is referring to a group other than the wives of the Prophet, using masculine gender, and that group includes some male members. From the verse 33:33 alone, we can not conclude that the wives of the Prophet are not included in Ahlul-Bayt. This latter claim can be proven by the authentic traditions of the Sunnis from Sihah Sittah in which the Prophet mentioned who Ahlul-Bayt are; and also by comparing the specifications of Ahlul-Bayt given in the verse of Quran with the behavior of the some of the wives of the Prophet mentioned in Sihah Sittah to prove the contrary. What can be understood from the verse ALONE is that Allah is changing His address (which was exclusively the wives of the Prophet at the beginning of the verse) to some people who include some male members, and may or may not include the wives of the Prophet. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Authentic Traditions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- It is interesting to see that both Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Tirmidhi as well as many others confirm the Shi'ite point of view explained above. In Sahih Muslim, there is a chapter named "Chapter of Virtues of the Companions". Inside this chapter, there is a section called "Section of the Virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet". There exists ONLY ONE tradition in this section, and this tradition has no reference to the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). The tradition is known as "The Tradition of Cloak/Mantle" (Hadith al-Kisaa), and is as follows: Narrated Aisha: One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)." Sunni reference: Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61. One can see that the author of Sahih Muslim confirms that: Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain are the Ahlul-Bayt, The purification sentence in Quran (the last sentence of Verse 33:33) was revealed for the virtue of the above-mentioned individuals, and NOT for the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Muslim (the Author) did not put any other tradition in this section (section of the virtues of Ahlul-Bayt). If the author of Sahih Muslim believed that the wives of the Prophet were included in Ahlul-Bayt, he would have quoted some traditions about them in this section. It is interesting to see that Aisha, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) is the narrator of the above tradition, and she herself is testifying that Ahlul- Bayt are the above-mentioned individuals (i.e., Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, may the blessing of Allah be upon them all). Another version of the "Tradition of Cloak" is written in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, which is narrated in the authority of Umar Ibn Abi Salama, the son of Umm Salama (another wife of Prophet), which is as follows: The verse "Verily Allah intends to ... (33:33)" was revealed to the Prophet (PBUH&HF) in the house of Umm Salama. Upon that, the Prophet gathered Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, and covered them with a cloak, and he also covered Ali who was behind him. Then the Prophet said: "O' Allah! These are the Members of my House (Ahlul-Bayt). Keep them away from every impurity and purify them with a perfect purification." Umm Salama (the wife of Prophet) asked: "Am I also included among them O Apostle of Allah?" the Prophet replied: "You remain in your position and you are toward a good ending." Sunni reference: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, pp 351,663 As we see, al-Tirmidhi also confirms that Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain are the Ahlul-Bayt, and the purification sentence in Quran (the last sentence of Verse 33:33) was revealed for the virtue of the above-mentioned individuals, and NOT for the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Also it is apparent from above authentic tradition that the Prophet himself excluded his wives from Ahlul-Bayt. If Umm Salama (RA) was among Ahlul-Bayt, why didn't the Prophet answer her positively? Why didn't he enter her into the cloak? Why did the Prophet tell her that she remains in her own position? If the Prophet (PBUH&HF) would consider Umm Salama among Ahlul-Bayt, he would surely have entered her to the cloak and would have prayed for her perfect purity as well. It is also worth mentioning that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) did NOT say: "These are among the Members of my House". He rather said: "These are THE Members of my House" since there was no other member of Ahlul-Bayt who was alive at the time of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Also notice that Umm Salama (RA) who is the virtuous wife of the Prophet is the narrator of the tradition to his son and gives the testimony that who Ahlul-Bayt are. In the tradition of al-Hakim the wording the last question and answer is as follows: Umm Salama said: "O Prophet of Allah! Am I not one of the members of your family?" The Holy Prophet replied: "You have a good future but only these are the members of my family. O Lord! The members of my family are more deserving." Sunni reference: al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416 Also the wording reported by al-Suyuti and Ibn al-Athir is as follows: Umm Salama said to the Holy Prophet: "Am I also one of them?" He replied: "No. You have your own special position and your future is good." Sunni reference: Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v2, p289 Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, p198 Also al-Tabari quotes Umm Salama saying: I said, "O Prophet of Allah! Am I not also one of your Ahlul-Bayt?" I swear by the Almighty that the Holy Prophet did NOT grant me any distinction and said: "You have a good future." Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Tabari, v22, p7 under the commentary of verse 33:33 Beside Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Tirmidhi from which we quoted the Tradition of Cloak on the authority of Aisha and Umm Salama respectively, below are more Sunni references of the Tradition of Cloak who reported both versions of the traditions: (3) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, pp 323,292,298; v1, pp 330-331; v3, p252; v4, p107 from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (4) Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p578, Tradition #978 (5) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416 (two traditions) from Ibn Abi Salama, v3, pp 146-148 (five traditions), pp 158,172 (6) al-Khasa'is, by an-Nisa'i, pp 4,8 (7) al-Sunan, by al-Bayhaqi, narrated from Aisha and Umm Salama (8) Tafsir al-Kabir, by al-Bukhari (the author of Sahih), v1, part 2, p69 (9) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v2, p700 (Istanbul), from Aisha (10) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, pp 198,605 from Aisha and Umm Salama (11) Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, pp 5-8 (from Aisha and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri), pp 6,8 (from Ibn Abi Salama) (10 traditions) (12) Tafsir al-Qurtubi, under the commentary of verse 33:33 from Umm Salama (13) Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p485 (Complete version) from Aisha and Umar Ibn Abi Salama (14) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v2, p12; v4, p79 narrated from Ibn Abi Salama (15) Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, sec. 1, p221 from Umm Salama (16) Tarikh, by al-Khateeb Baghdadi, v10, narrated from Ibn Abi Salama (17) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, v1, p193 narrated from Aisha (18) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, pp 332-336 (seven traditions) (19) Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibb al-Tabari, pp21-26, from Abu Sa'id Khudri (20) Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p166 (by several transmitters) ... and more ... Here is another authentic variation of "The Tradition of Cloak" which is related to Safiyya who was another wife of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib narrated: When the Messenger of Allah noticed that a blessing from Allah was to descent, he told Safiyya (one of his wives): "Call for me! Call for me!" Safiyya said: "Call who, O the Messenger of Allah?" He said: "Call for me my Ahlul-Bayt who are Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain." Thus we sent for them and they came to him. Then the Prophet (PBUH&HF) spread his cloak over them, and raised his hand (toward sky) saying: "O Allah! These are my family (Aalee), so bless Muhammad and the family (Aal) of Muhammad." And Allah, to whom belong Might and Majesty, revealed: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a thorough purification (Quran, the last sentence of Verse 33:33)". Sunni references: al-Mustadrak by al-Hakim, Chapter of "Understanding (the virtues) of Companions, v3, p148. The author then wrote: "This tradition is authentic (Sahih) based on the criteria of the two Shaikhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim)." Talkhis of al-Mustadrak, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p148 Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v3, p33 Although the majority of traditions on this issue show that the last sentence of the verse 33:33 was revealed in the house of Umm Salama (as quoted earlier), the above tradition implies that it might have been revealed in the house of Safiyya. Based on the opinion of the Sunni scholars including Ibn Hajar, it is quite possible that the verse was revealed more than once. In each occasion, the Prophet repeated his action in front of different wives so that they all realize who his Ahlul-Bayt are. The testimony of three wives of the Prophet (Aisha, Umm Salama, and Safiyya) leaves us no room but to believe that the Ahlul-Bayt at the time of the Prophet were no more than five individuals: Prophet Muhammad, Lady Fatimah, Imam Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husain (Peace be upon them all). The fact that the gender in later part of Verse 33:33 is switched from feminine to masculine, has led the majority of Sunni commentators to believe that the last part was revealed for Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain, as Ibn Hajar al-Haythami indicated: Based on the opinion of the majority of (Sunni) commentators, the saying of Allah :"Verily Allah intends to ... (the last sentence of the verse 33:33)" was revealed for Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husain, because of the usage of masculine gender in the word "Ankum" and after that. Sunni reference: al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p220 Although the Shia have great respect for the highly righteous wives among the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), such as Khadija, Umm Salama, Umm Ayman and ... (may Allah be pleased with them) who closely followed the Prophet and his Ahlul-Bayt before and after the demise of Prophet (PBUH&HF), yet we do not include even those respected individuals into Ahlul-Bayt since the Prophet clearly excluded them according to the authentic Sunni and Shi'i traditions. Ahlul-Bayt have exceptional virtues that no other pious person after the Prophet would possess them in the world, which are according to Quran: sinlessness, flawlessness and perfect purity. Who are Ahlul-Bayt? (Part II) In the previous part, three authentic versions of "The Tradition of Cloak/Mantle" (Hadith al-Kisaa) reported in Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Tirmidhi, and Mustadrak al-Hakim. In these traditions three wives of the Prophet testified that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) specified that the Members of his House (in his lifetime) are restricted to his daughter Fatimah (AS), her husband Ali (AS) and their two sons: al-Hasan (AS), and al-Husain (AS). Also according to the quoted traditions, the purification sentence in Quran (the last sentence of Verse 33:33) was revealed for their virtue and NOT for the wives of the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Now, let us see what the Messenger of Allah used to do for quite sometime after the revelation of the verse: The Long-Term Custom of the Prophet After the Revelation of the Purification Verse It has been widely narrated that after the revelation of the purification verse of Quran (Ayah al-Tat'hir), the Messenger of Allah used to recited this verse at the door of the House of Fatimah and Ali before EVERY prayer when people were gathering to pray with the Messenger of Allah. He continued this practice for many months simply to show the people who his Ahlul-Bayt are. Anas Ibn Malik narrated: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF), from the time the revelation of "Verily Allah intends to... (the last part of Verse 33:33)" and for six (6) months thereafter, stood by the door of the House of Fatimah and said: "Time for Prayer Ahlul-Bayt; No doubt! Allah wished to remove all abomination from you and make you pure and spotless." Sunni references: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v12, p85 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v3, p258 Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p158 who wrote this tradition is authentic as per the criteria of Muslim and Bukhari Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, pp 197,199 Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, pp 5,6 (saying seven month) Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p483 Musnad, by al-Tiyalasi, v8, p274 Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v5, p146 Abu al-Hamra narrated: "The Messenger of God continued eight (8) months in Medina, coming to the door of Ali at every morning prayer, putting his two hands on the two sides of the door and exclaiming : "Assalat! Assalat! (prayer! prayer!) Certainly God ward off all uncleanness from you, O Members of the House of Muhammad, and to make you pure and spotless." Sunni references: Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, pp 198-199 Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p6 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p483 Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p24 on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik Isti'ab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v5, p637 Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v5, p146 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, pp 121,168 Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, p338 Also Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated: "We have witnessed the Messenger of God for nine (9) months coming to the door of Ali, son of Abu Talib, at the time of each prayer and saying: 'Assalamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullah Ahlul-Bayt (Peace and Mercy of God be upon you, O Members of the House). Certainly God wants only to keep away all the evil from you, Members of the House, and purify you with a thorough purification.' He did this seven times a day." Sunni reference: al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Hafidh al-Suyuti, v5, p198 In Majma' al-Zawa'id and exegesis of Suyuti it has been quoted from Abu Said Khudri with a variation in words that: For forty days the Holy Prophet approached the house of Fatimah Zahra every morning and used to say: 'Peace be upon you O people of the House! The time for the prayers has come'. And thereafter he used to recite this verse: O people of the Prophet's House.... And then said: 'I am in a state of war with him who fights with you and am in a state of peace with him who is at peace with you'. Sunni references: Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Hafidh al-Suyuti, v5, p199 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, pp 121,168 He repeated this openly at the time of each prayer so as to demonstrate the meaning of this verse verbally as well as practically and he explained it to his followers on the lines of the sacred verse: "We have revealed the Quran to you so that you could tell the people what has been revealed to them and that perhaps they will think. (Quran 16:44)" This concept became well known among the people and even the companions of the Holy Prophet argued on its basis on behalf of the Holy Prophet's family: Those Who Protested based on the Purification Verse to Prove the Virtues of the Holy Family Imam al-Hasan Ibn Ali (AS) al-Hakim (in al-Mustadrak) in connection with the attainments of Imam al-Hasan, and al-Haythami (in connection with the excellence of the Holy Family) have narrated that Imam al-Hasan (AS) addressed the people after the martyrdom of his father Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (AS) and said during his speech: O People! Whoever knows me, knows me and whoever doesn't know me should know that I am al-Hasan Ibn Ali; I am the son of the Holy Prophet and of his executor (Wasi). I am the son him who invited people to Allah and warned them of the torture of His Hell-fire. I am the son of the luminous Lamp. I belong to the family upon whom Gabriel used to descend and from there ascend to heavens. I belong to the family from whom Allah has ward off all filth and made them pure. Sunni references: al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p172 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p172 It has been narrated in Majma' al-Zawa'id and Tafsir Ibn Kathir that: After his father's martyrdom when (Imam) al-Hasan attained the Caliphate, one day while he was performing his prayers, a man attacked him and thrust a sword in his thigh. He remained confined to bed for some months. Thereafter, he recovered and delivered a sermon and said: "O People of Iraq! Fear Allah. We are your Amirs (leaders) and your guests and belong to the family about whom Almighty Allah has said: 'O People of the Prophet's House..' Imam al-Hasan dwelt on this subject so much that all those present in the Mosque began to cry." Sunni references: Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p172 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p486 This tradition has also been quoted by al-Tabarani and others Ummul Mu'minin, Umm Salama (RA) In Mushkil al-Athar, al-Tahawi has quoted Umrah al-Hamdaniyyah as saying: I went to Umm Salama and greeted her. She inquired: "Who are you?" I replied: "I am Umrah Hamdaniyyah." Umrah says, "I said O mother of the Faithful! Say something about the man who has been killed among us today. One group of the people like him and another group is inimical towards him," (He meant Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib). Umm Salama said, "Do you like him or are you hostile to him?" I replied, "I neither like him nor I am hostile to him." [Here the narrative is defective and thereafter it is like this:] Umm Salama began to tell about the revelation of the verse of Tat'hir and said in this behalf: "Allah revealed the verse: O People of the Prophet's House... There was none in the room at that time, except Gabriel, the Holy Prophet, Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain. I said: 'O Prophet of Allah! Am I too one of the people of the House?' He replied: 'Allah will reward you and recompense you.' I wished that he might have said 'Yes' and would have valued such a reply much more than anything else in the world.'" Sunni reference: Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, p336 Ahmad in Musnad; Tabari in his exegesis and al-Tahawi in Mushkil al-Athar have quoted Shahr Ibn Haushab, to have said: When the news of the martyrdom of al-Husain reached Medina I heard Umm Salama, wife of the Holy Prophet, saying: "They have killed al-Husain. I myself observed that the Holy Prophet spread his Khaibari cloak on them and said: 'O Allah! These are the members of my family! Ward off any uncleanness from them and keep them clean and pure!'" Sunni references: Musnad, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p298 Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p6 Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, p335 Ibn Abbas (RA) Ahmad, al-Nisa'i, Muhibbuddin, and al-Haythami have reported (the wording being of Ahmad's Musnad): 'Amr Ibn Maimoon said: "I was with Ibn Abbas when nine persons came to him and said: 'Ibn Abbas! Either come out with us or provide us privacy.' He said: 'I shall go out with you.' In those days the eyes of Ibn Abbas were all right and he could see. They had mutual conversation and I am not aware as to what they talked about. After some time Ibn Abbas returned to us. He was then shaking off his dress saying: 'Fie be upon them! They are talking about the man who enjoys ten excellences.' [Later in the narration Ibn Abbas details the virtues of the Imam till he says:] 'The Holy Prophet spread his cloak upon Ali, al-Hasan and al-Husain and said: O People of the Prophet's House! Allah intends to keep you pure from all sorts of uncleanness and blemish and to purify you with a thorough purification.'" Sunni references: Musnad, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p331 (First edition) al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, v2, p269 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p119 Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas In al-Khasa'is, al-Nisa'i has quoted Amir Ibn Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas as saying: Muawiyah said to Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, "Why do you refrain from abusing Abu Turab?" Sa'd said, "I don't abuse Ali for three attributes of his which I heard from the Holy Prophet. If even one of them had been for me, I would have valued it much more than anything else on earth. I heard from the Holy Prophet that When he left Imam Ali as his representative in Medina and proceeded to fight a battle, Ali said: 'Are you leaving me with the women and the children in Medina?' The Holy Prophet replied: 'Don't you like that your position vis-a-vis me should be like that of Aaron (Haroon) with Moses. You enjoy the same position in regard to me as Aaron enjoyed with Moses.' On the fateful day of Khaibar, too, I heard the Holy Prophet as saying: 'Tomorrow I shall give the standard (of the army) to one who loves Allah and His Prophet and Allah and His Prophet also love him'. All of us were keen to be graced and singled out in the face of this declaration and wished that the standard might be in our hands. In the meantime the Holy Prophet said: 'Bring Ali to me.' Ali came in such a condition that he had some trouble in his eyes. The Holy Prophet applied the saliva of his mouth to (Imam) Ali's eyes and gave the standard in his hand. Moreover, when the verse of Tat'hir was revealed, the Holy Prophet called Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain near himself and said: 'O Allah! These are the People of my House.'" Sunni references: al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, p4 A fairly similar narration is given in Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CMXCVI (Virtues of Ali), p1284, Tradition #5916 Also al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir, al-Hakim, and al-Tahawi have quoted from Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas that: At the time of the revelation of the verse, the Holy Prophet called Ali along with his two sons and Fatimah and accommodated them under his own cloak and said: 'O Lord! These are the members of my family'. Sunni references: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p7 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p485 al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p147 Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, p336; v2, p33 History of al-Tabari, Arabic version, v5, p31 Abu Sa'id al-Khudri It narrated on that: Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: "This verse has been revealed about five individuals: Myself, Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husain, and Fatimah." Sunni references: Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p5, under the verse 33:33 Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p24 al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11, section 1, p221 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami Wathilah Ibn Asqa' al-Tabari while commenting on the verse 33:33, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, al- Hakim who considers the tradition to be authentic according to the criteria of Muslim and al-Bukhari, also Bayhaqi, al-Tahawi, and Haythami quote Abu Ammar as having said (the wording is of al-Tabari): I was sitting with Wathilah Ibn Asqa' when a discussion took place about Ali and the people abused him. When those present rose to leave he said to me: 'Keep sitting so that I may talk with you about the man whom they have been abusing. I was with the Holy Prophet when Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain approached him and the Holy Prophet spread his cloak on them and said: "O Allah! These are the members of my family. Ward off every uncleanness from them and keep them clean and pure." Sunni references: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p6 al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416; v3, p417 Musnad, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p107 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p167 Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v1, p346 Sunan, al-Bayhaqi, v2, p152 Also Ibn al-Athir quoted Shaddad Ibn Abdullah saying: I heard from Wathilah Ibn Asqa' that when the head of (Imam) al-Husain was brought, one of the Syrians abused (Imam) al-Husain and his father, Wathilah stood up and said: "I swear by Allah that ever since I heard the Holy Prophet say about them: 'O People of the Prophet's House! Allah intends to keep you pure from uncleanness and blemish and to purify you with a thorough purification,' I have always loved Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husain (Peace be upon them).'" Sunni reference: Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v2, p20 Ali Ibn al-Husain, Zain al-Abideen (AS) While commenting on the verse 33:33, al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir and al-Suyuti have stated in their exegesis: Ali Ibn Husain said to a Syrian: "Have you read this verse in Surah al-Ahzab, O people of the House! Allah intends to keep you pure from blemish and to purify you with a thorough purification (Quran 33:33)?" The Syrian said: "Does this verse pertain to you?" The Imam replied: "Yes, it pertains to us." Sunni references: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22, p7 Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v3, p486 Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Hafidh al-Suyuti, v5, p199 al-Kharazmi has quoted this very narration in his Maqtal in the following words: When, after the martyrdom of (Imam) al-Husain the grandson of the Holy Prophet, (Imam) Zain al-Abideen and other prisoners belonging to the House of the Holy Prophet were carried to Damascus and stationed in a jail located by the side of the Grand Mosque of Damascus, an old man approached them and said: "Praised be Allah who killed you and annihilated you and relieved the people from your men and provided the Commander of the Faithful (Yazid) with authority over you." Ali Ibn al-Husain said: "O old man! Have you read the Holy Quran?" He replied: "Yes." Then the Imam said: "Have you read the verse: Muhammad! 'Say, I do not ask you of any reward for my preaching except the love of my kinsfolk'?" The old man said: "Yes. I have read it." The Imam said: "Have you read the verse: 'So give what is due to the near ones, the needy and the wayfarer.' and the verse: 'Know that whatever (income) you gain, one fifth belongs to Allah, the Messenger, his near ones, orphans the needy and the wayfarers, if you believe in Allah and what We revealed to Our servant in the Holy Quran'?" The old man replied: "Yes. I have read them." The Imam said: "I swear by Allah that the word 'near ones' refers to us and these verses have been revealed about us. (The Imam added): And have you also read this verse in the Holy Quran wherein Allah says: 'O people of the Prophet's House...' (33:33)?" The old man said: "Yes. I have read it". The Imam said: "What is meant by people of the Prophet's House! It is we whom Allah has especially associated with the verse of Tat'hir (purification)." The old man said: "I ask you by Allah! Are you of the same family?" The Imam replied: "I swear by my grandfather the Prophet of Allah that we are the same people." The old man was stunned and expressed regret for what he had said. Then he raised his head towards the sky and said: "O Allah! I ask forgiveness for what I have said, and forsake enmity against this family and hate the enemies of the progeny of Muhammad." Sunni reference: Maqtal al-Husain, by al-Khateeb al-Kharazmi (A SHI'ITE ENCYCLOPEDIA) AL AJAL YAA SAHIBAZ ZAMAN

No comments: